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TED 你愿意销毁或出售你的个人数据吗? [复制链接]

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离线jenny
 

只看楼主 倒序阅读 使用道具 楼主  发表于: 2020-12-06
I grew up in the late '70s in rural China during the final years of my country's pursuit of absolute equality at the expense of liberty. At that time, everybody had a job, but everyone was struggling. In the early '80s, my dad was an electrician, and my mom worked two shifts in the local hospital.
我在70年代后期在中国农村长大,当时我的国家追求以牺牲自由为代价的绝对平等。当时,每个人都有工作,但每个人都在挣扎。在80年代初期,我父亲是一名电工,我妈妈在当地医院工作了两个班次。


But still, we didn't have enough food, and our living conditions were dismal. We were undoubtedly equal -- we were equally poor. The state owned everything. We owned nothing. The story I'm going to share with you is about my struggles of overcoming adversity with my resilience, grit and sheer determination. No, I'm just kidding, I'm not going to do that to you.
但是,我们仍然没有足够的食物,我们的生活条件令人沮丧。我们无疑是平等的,平等的贫穷。国家拥有一切。我们什么都没有。我将与你们分享的故事是关于我以韧性、毅力和绝对决心克服逆境的努力。不,我只是在开玩笑,我不会对你这样做。

Instead, I'm going to tell you, what I'm going to talk about today is about a new form of collective poverty that many of us don't recognize and that urgently needs to be understood.
相反,我要告诉你,我今天要谈论的是关于一种新的集体贫困形式 ,我们中许多人不认识这种形式的贫困,这一迫切需要理解。

I'm sure you've noticed that in the past 20 years, that asset has emerged. It's been generating wealth at a breakneck pace. As a tool, it has brought businesses deep customer insights, operational efficiency and enormous top-line growth. But for some, it has also provided a device to manipulate a democratic election or perform surveillance for profit or political purposes. What is this miracle asset? You've guessed it: it's data.
我相信你已经注意到,在过去的20年中,这种资产已经出现。它以惊人的速度创造财富。作为一种工具,它为企业带来了深刻的客户洞察力,运营效率和巨大的收入增长。但是对于某些人来说,它也提供了操纵民主选举或进行牟利或政治目的监视的设备。这是什么奇迹资产?您已经猜到了:这是数据。

Seven out of the top 10 most valuable companies in the world are tech companies that either directly generate profit from data or are empowered by data from the core. Multiple surveys show that the vast majority of business decision makers regard data as an essential asset for success. We have all experienced how data is shifting this major paradigm shift for our personal, economic and political lives. Whoever owns the data owns the future.
在全球最有价值的10家公司中,有7家是直接从数据中获利或受到核心数据的支持的科技公司。多项调查显示,绝大多数企业决策者 数据视为成功的重要资产。我们都经历过数据如何改变这种重大的范式转变,从而改变我们的个人、经济和政治生活。拥有数据的人拥有未来。

But who's producing the data? I assume everyone in this room has a smartphone, several social media accounts and has done a Google search or two in the past week. We are all producing data. Yes.
但是谁在生产数据?我认为会议室中的每个人都拥有智能手机,多个社交媒体帐户,并且在过去一周中对Google进行了一两个搜索。我们都在产生数据。是的。

It is estimated that by 2030, 10 years from now, there will be about 125 billion connected devices in the world. That's an average of about 15 devices per person. We are already producing data every day. We'll be producing exponentially more. Google, Facebook and Tencent's combined revenue in 2018 was 236 billion US dollars. Now, how many of you have received payment from them for the data you generate for them? None, right? Data has immense value but is centrally controlled and owned. You are all walking raw materials for those large data companies, but none of you are paid.
据估计,到现在的10年后的2030年,世界上将有约1250亿台互联设备。每人平均约有15台设备。我们已经每天都在生成数据。我们将成倍增加产量。谷歌,Facebook和腾讯2018年的总收入为2360亿美元。现在,你们中有多少人已经收到了您为他们生成的数据付款?没事吧?数据具有巨大价值,但受到中央控制和拥有。你们都是那些大型数据公司的原材料,但是你们都没有薪水。

Not only that, you're not even considered as part of this equation for income. So once again, we are undoubtedly equal: we're equally poor. Somebody else owns everything, and we own nothing. Sounds familiar, doesn't it?
不仅如此,您甚至不被视为收入方程式的一部分。因此,我们无疑再次平等:我们同样贫穷。别人拥有一切,我们什么都不拥有。听起来很熟悉,不是吗?

So what should we do? There might be some clues in how my life turned out after that difficult start. Things began to look up for my family in the '80s. The system evolved, and people began to be allowed to own a piece of what we created. "People diving into the ocean," or "xia hai," the Chinese term, described those who left state-owned enterprise jobs and started their own businesses. Private ownership of a business became personal ownership of cars, properties, food, clothes and things.
那我们该怎么办呢?在艰难的开始之后,我的生活可能会有一些线索。80年代,家庭开始为我的家人寻找东西。系统不断发展,人们开始被允许拥有我们创造的作品。汉语中的“下海 ”是指那些离开国有企业工作而开办自己的企业的人。企业的私有制变成了汽车,财产,食物,衣服和东西的私有制。


The economic machine started rolling, and people's lives began to improve. For the first time, to get rich was glorious. So in the '90s, when I went to study in Chengdu in west China, many young individuals like myself were well-positioned to take advantage of the new system. After I graduated from my university, I cofounded my first business and moved to Shenzhen, the brand-new special economic zone that used to be a fishing village. Twenty years later, Shenzhen has become a global innovation powerhouse.
经济机器开始滚动,人们的生活开始改善。第一次,致富是光荣的。因此,在90年代,当我去中国西部的成都学习时,许多像我这样的年轻人都处于利用该新系统的有利条件。大学毕业后,我创办了第一家公司,并搬到了深圳,这是一个曾经是渔村的全新经济特区。二十年后,深圳已成为全球创新中心。

Private ownership was a form of liberty we didn't have before. It created unprecedented opportunities for our generations, motivating us to work and study incredibly hard. The result was that more than 850 million people rose out of poverty. According to the World Bank, China's extreme poverty rate in 1981, when I was a little kid, was 88 percent. By 2015, 0.7 percent. I am a product of that success, and I am very happy to share that today, I have my own AI business, and I lead a very worldly and dynamic life, a path that was unimaginable when I was a kid in west China.
私有制是我们前所未有的一种自由。它为我们这一代人创造了前所未有的机会,激励我们努力工作和学习。结果是超过8.5亿人摆脱了贫困。根据世界银行的数据,1981年,我还是个小孩的时候,中国的极端贫困率为88%。到2015年为0.7%。我是成功的产物 ,今天我很高兴与大家分享我拥有自己的AI业务,我过着非常普通而充满活力的生活,这是我在中国西部小时候无法想象的道路。

Of course, this prosperity came with a trade-off, with equality, the environment and freedom. And obviously I'm not here to argue that China has it all figured out. We haven't. Nor that data is fully comparable to physical assets. It is not. But my life experience allowed me to see what's hiding in plain sight. Currently, the public discourse is so focused on the regulatory and privacy issue when it comes to data ownership.
当然,这种繁荣伴随着平等,环境与自由的权衡。显然,我并不是在这里争辩说中国已经搞清楚了。还没有这些数据也无法与实物资产完全媲美。它不是。但是我的生活经历让我看到了隐藏的东西。当前,当涉及到数据所有权时,公共讨论主要集中在监管和隐私问题上。

But I want to ask: What if we look at data ownership in completely different ways? What if data ownership is, in fact, a personal, individual and economic issue? What if, in the new digital economy, we are allowed to own a piece of what we create and give people the liberty of private data ownership?
但是我想问:如果我们以完全不同的方式看待数据所有权该怎么办?如果数据所有权实际上是个人,个人和经济问题,该怎么办?如果在新的数字经济中,我们被允许拥有我们创造的一部分,并赋予人们私有数据所有权的自由吗?

The legal concept of ownership is when you can possess, use, gift, pass on, destroy or trade it or sell your asset at a price accepted by you. What if we give that same definition to individuals' data, so individuals can use or destroy our data or we trade it at our chosen price?
所有权的法律概念是指您可以以你接受的价格拥有,使用,赠与,转让,销毁或交易它或出售您的资产。如果我们对个人数据赋予相同的定义,以便个人可以使用或销毁我们的数据,或者以我们选择的价格进行交易怎么办?

Now, I know some of you might say, "I would never, ever trade my data for any amount of money." But that, let me remind you, is exactly what you're doing now, except you're giving your data away for free. Plus, privacy is a very personal and nuanced issue. You might have the privilege to prioritize your privacy over money,
现在,我知道你们中有些人可能会说:“我永远也不会以任何金额交易我的数据。”但是,我提醒您,这就是您现在正在做的事情,除了您免费提供数据外。另外,隐私是一个非常个人化且细微的问题。您可能有特权优先考虑隐私而不是金钱,


but for millions of small business owners in China who can't get bank loans easily, using their data to gain rapid loan approval from AI-powered lenders can answer their more pressing needs. What's private to you is different from what's private to others. What's private to you now is different from what was private when you were in college. Or, at least, I hope so.
但是对于中国数百万无法轻易获得银行贷款的小企业主来说,利用他们的数据获得AI快速贷款批准可以满足他们更紧迫的需求。您私有的东西不同于他人私有的东西。与大家上大学时的私密性相比,现在的私密性有所不同。或者,至少,我希望如此。

We are always, although often subconsciously, making such trade-offs based on our diverse personal beliefs and life priorities. That is why data ownership would be incomplete without a pricing power.
尽管总是下意识地,但我们总是根据我们多样化的个人信念和生活优先级进行这种权衡。因此,如果没有定价权,数据所有权将不完整。

By assigning pricing power to individuals, we gain a tool to reflect our personal and nuanced preferences. So, for example, you could choose to donate your data for free if a contribution to a particular medical research is very meaningful for you. Or, if we had the tools to set our behavior data at a price of, say, 100,000 US dollars, I doubt any political group would be able to target or manipulate your vote. You control. You decide.
通过为个人分配定价权,我们获得了一种工具来反映我们的个人偏好和细微差别。因此,例如,如果选择对特定医学研究免费捐赠数据,对你而言是非常有意义的。又或者,如果我们有工具以10万美元标价我们的行为数据,我怀疑任何政治集团都将能够针对或操纵你的投票。你控制。你决定。

Now, I know this sounds probably implausible, but trends are already pointing to a growing and very powerful individual data ownership movement. First, start-ups are already creating tools to allow us to take back some control. A new browser called Brave empowers users with "Brave Shields" -- they literally call it that -- by aggressively blocking data-grabbing ads and trackers, and avoid leaking data like other browsers. In return, users can take back some bargaining and pricing power.
现在,我知道这听起来似乎难以置信,但是趋势已经表明,个人数据所有权运动正在发展并且非常强大。首先,初创企业已经在创建工具,使我们能够收回一些控制权。一种名为Brave的新浏览器,通过积极地阻止吸引数据的广告和跟踪器,并避免像其他浏览器一样泄漏数据,从而为用户提供“ Brave Shields”。作为回报,用户可以收回一些议价和定价权。


When users opt in to accept ads, Brave rewards users with "basic attention tokens" that can redeem content behind paywalls from publishers. And I've been using Brave for a few months. It has already blocked more than 200,000 ads and trackers and saved hours of my time. Now, I know some of you interact with your browser more than with your partners, so --
当用户选择接受广告时,Brave会向用户奖励“基本关注令牌”,这些令牌可以从发布商处赎回付费墙后面的内容。我已经使用Brave几个月了。它已经阻止了200,000多个广告和跟踪器,并节省了我的时间。现在,我知道你们中的一些人与浏览器的互动比与伙伴的互动更多,所以-

you should at least find one that doesn't waste your time and is not creepy.
你至少应该找到一个不会浪费你的时间并且不令人毛骨悚然的东西。

Do you think Google is indispensable? Think again. A search engine is indispensable. Google just has the monopoly -- for now. A search engine called DuckDuckGo doesn't store your personal information or follow you around with ads or track your personal browsing history. Instead, it gives all users the same search results instead of based on your personal browsing records.
你认为Google是必不可少的吗?再想一想。搜索引擎是必不可少的。谷歌只是垄断了,到目前为止。名为DuckDuckGo的搜索引擎不会存储您的个人信息,也不会跟踪您的广告,也不会跟踪您的个人浏览历史记录。相反,它为所有用户提供了相同的搜索结果,而不是基于您的个人浏览记录。

In London, a company called digi.me offers an app you can download on your smartphone that helps to import and consolidate your data generated by you from your Fitbit, Spotify, social media accounts ... And you can choose where to store your data, and digi.me will help you to make your data work for you by providing insights that used to be exclusively accessible by large data companies.
在伦敦,一家名为digi.me的公司提供了一个应用程序,您可以在智能手机 上下载该应用程序,以帮助导入和合并您从Fitbit,Spotify,社交媒体帐户中生成的数据……并且您可以选择在何处存储数据,digi.me还将通过提供以前只有大型数据公司才能访问的网页来帮助你,使数据为您服务。

In DC, a new initiative called UBDI, U-B-D-I, Universal Basic Data Income, helps people to make money by sharing anonymous insights through their data for companies that can use them for market research. And whenever a company purchases a study, users get paid in cash and UBDI points to track their contribution, potentially as much as 1,000 US dollars per year per their estimation. UBDI could be a very feasible path for universal basic income in the AI economy.
在哥伦比亚特区,一项名为UBDI,UBDI,通用基本数据收入新计划,可以帮助人们通过共享数据中的匿名见解来为人们赚钱,这些公司可以将其用于市场研究。而且,每当一家公司购买一项研究时,用户就会获得现金和UBDI积分,以跟踪他们的贡献,根据他们的估计,每年可能多达1000美元 。UBDI可能是在AI经济中,能满足普遍基本收入的非常可行的途径。

Further, individual awareness of privacy and data ownership is growing fast as we all become aware of this monster we have unleashed in our pocket. I'm a mother of two preteen girls, and trust me, the single biggest source of stress and anxiety as a parent, for me, is my children's relationship with technology. This is a three-page agreement my husband and I make them sign before they receive their first agreement.
此外,随着我们都意识到我们释放在口袋里的这个怪物,个人对隐私和数据所有权的意识正在迅速增长。我是两个青春期女孩的母亲,相信我,对我来说,作为父母的最大压力和焦虑根源是我的孩子与技术的关系。这是一个三页的协议,我的丈夫和我让他们在收到他们的第一份协议之前就签署了。

We want to help them to become digital citizens, but only if we can make them become smart and responsible ones. I help them to understand what kind of data should never be shared. So if you Google me, in fact -- actually, sorry -- if you DuckDuckGo me, you will find maybe a lot about me and my work, but you may find no information about my daughters.
我们希望帮助他们成为数字公民,但前提是我们必须使他们成为聪明和负责任的人。我帮助他们了解永远不应该共享的数据类型。因此,实际上,对不起,如果你用Google搜索我,对不起,如果你用是DuckDuckGo搜索我,你可能会发现很多有关我和我工作的信息,但可能找不到有关我女儿的信息。


When they grow up, if they want to put themselves out there, it's their choice, not mine, despite that I insist they're the most beautiful, smartest and most extraordinary kids in the world, of course. And I know many people are having similar conversations and making similar decisions, which gives me hope that a truly smart data-rich future will be here soon.
当他们长大后,如果他们想把自己放在那里,那是他们的选择,而不是我的,尽管我坚持认为他们当然是世界上最美丽,最聪明和最不寻常的孩子。我知道很多人在进行类似的对话并做出类似的决定,这给了我希望,一个真正智能的,数据丰富的未来将很快到来。

But I want to highlight the Clause 6 of this agreement. It says, "I will never, ever search for any information online if I would be embarrassed if seen by Grandma Dawnie."
但是,我想强调一下该协议的第6条。它说:“如果以后被Dawnie奶奶看到的话,我将永远不会在网上搜索任何信息。”

Try it. It's really effective.
尝试一下。真的很有效。

Throughout history, there has always been a trade-off between liberty and equality in the pursuit of prosperity. The world has constantly been going through the circle of wealth accumulation to wealth redistribution. As the tension between the haves and have-nots is breaking so many countries, it is in everyone's interest, including the large data companies, to prevent this new form of inequality.
纵观历史,在追求繁荣时,我们始终在自由与平等之间进行权衡。世界一直在经历财富积累到财富再分配的循环。由于富国与富国之间的紧张关系正在影响许多国家,虽然这符合所有人的利益,包括大型数据公司,但大家都在防止这种新形式的不平等。

Of course, individual data ownership is not the perfect nor the complete answer to this profoundly complex question of what makes a good digital society. But according to McKinsey, AI will add 13 trillion US dollars of economic output in the next 10 years. Data generated by individuals will no doubt contribute to this enormous growth.
当然,对于这个深刻的复杂问题,即如何构成一个好的数字社会,个人数据所有权既不是完美的解决方案,也不是完整的解决方案。但是根据麦肯锡的说法,人工智能将在未来十年内增加13万亿美元的经济产出。个人产生的数据无疑将促进这一巨大的增长。


Shouldn't we at least consider an economic model that empowers the people? And if private ownership helped to lift more than 850 million people out of poverty, it is our duty and we owe it to future generations to create a more inclusive AI economy that will empower the people in addition to businesses.
我们不应该至少考虑一种赋予人民权力的经济模式吗?如果私有制有助于使超过8.5亿人摆脱贫困,这是我们的责任,那么我们应负起子孙后代的责任,即创造一个更具包容性的AI经济,为企业和人民带来更多力量。

Thank you.
谢谢。
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