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TED:宅家没动力?十分钟带你找到更好的自己 ! [复制链接]

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离线jenny
 


Most of us go through life trying to do our best at whatever we do, whether it's our job, family, school or anything else. I feel that way. I try my best. But some time ago, I came to a realization that I wasn't getting much better at the things I cared most about, whether it was being a husband or a friend or a professional or teammate, and I wasn't improving much at those things even though I was spending a lot of time working hard at them.

我们中的很多人,无论是工作、家庭、学业还是其他的事情,都在尽自己所能地做到最好。我也有同感,也会同样尽力去做。但是前一段时间我突然意识到,我在自己最重要的事情上并没有进步,比如我作为一个丈夫、一个朋友,或是一个专家、一个队友,虽然已经很努力地扮演好这些角色,却仍然没有太多的进步。
I've since realized from conversations I've had and from research that this stagnation, despite hard work, turns out to be pretty common. So I'd like to share with you some insights into why that is and what we can all do about it. What I've learned is that the most effective people and teams in any domain do something we can all emulate.
后来我从与其他人的聊天和研究中慢慢意识到,这种一直在白白浪费力气的停滞不前的状态,是种很普遍的现象。所以今天我想和你们分享一些观点,关于为什么会这样以及我们能做些什么。我了解到,无论是哪个领域,那些最高效的个人或团队都有值得我们借鉴之处。
They go through life deliberately alternating between two zones: the learning zone and the performance zone.
生活中,他们是在下意识地在两个区域转换:学习区和表现区。
The learning zone is when our goal is to improve. Then we do activities designed for improvement, concentrating on what we haven't mastered yet, which means we have to expect to make mistakes, knowing that we will learn from them. That is very different from what we do when we're in our performance zone, which is when our goal is to do something as best as we can, to execute. Then we concentrate on what we have already mastered and we try to minimize mistakes.
学习区是我们希望进步的部分,我们为了提高自己而有计划的进行一些行为,尤其专注于那些我们还没有掌握的东西。这就意味着我们必须有会犯错误的觉悟,并且也知道我们会从中得到教训。这和我们在表现区完全相反,因为在表现区我们的目标是尽我们的所能去做、去执行,我们专注于自己已经掌握的东西,并尽力减少错误。
Both of these zones should be part of our lives, but being clear about when we want to be in each of them, with what goal, focus and expectations, helps us better perform and better improve. The performance zone maximizes our immediate performance, while the learning zone maximizes our growth and our future performance.
这两个区域都应该是我们生活的一部分,但是在进入这个区域之前,先想清楚我们什么时候想要进入这两个区域,有什么目标、关注和期望。这可以帮助我们更好地提升自己、表现自己。表现区域让我们的即时表现最大化,而学习区域让我们的成长和未来的表现最大化。
The reason many of us don't improve much despite our hard work is that we tend to spend almost all of our time in the performance zone. This hinders our growth, and ironically, over the long term, also our performance.
那么为什么我们努力工作了却没有太多进步呢?原因就是我们往往花了很多时间在表现区里。这阻碍着我们的进步。而更讽刺的是,往长久来看,这也影响着我们未来的表现。
So what does the learning zone look like? Take Demosthenes, a political leader and the greatest orator and lawyer in ancient Greece. To become great, he didn't spend all his time just being an orator or a lawyer, which would be his performance zone. But instead, he did activities designed for improvement.
而学习区是什么样子的呢?看看古希腊的政治领导者兼最伟大的演说家兼律师,狄摩西尼吧。为了成为更伟大的人,他没有把全部的时间都花费在演说或者是律师上,也就是他没有将时间完全放在表现区里。相反的,他一直为了自己的进步而去规划行为。


Of course, he studied a lot. He studied law and philosophy with guidance from mentors, but he also realized that being a lawyer involved persuading other people, so he also studied great speeches and acting. To get rid of an odd habit he had of involuntarily lifting his shoulder, he practiced his speeches in front of a mirror, and he suspended a sword from the ceiling so that if he raised his shoulder, it would hurt.
当然,他大量地学习。他不仅在导师的帮助下学习法律和哲学,他还意识到了律师的职责包括说服他人,所以他学习借鉴了许多伟大的演说家和表演家。为了改掉他说话时老是耸肩的坏毛病,他会在一面镜子前练习演讲, 并将一把剑吊在房梁上, 这样如果耸起了肩膀, 剑就会刺痛他。
To speak more clearly despite a lisp, he went through his speeches with stones in his mouth. He built an underground room where he could practice without interruptions and not disturb other people. And since courts at the time were very noisy, he also practiced by the ocean, projecting his voice above the roar of the waves. His activities in the learning zone were very different from his activities in court, his performance zone. In the learning zone, he did what Dr. Anders Ericsson calls deliberate practice.
为了咬字清晰,他在演说时嘴里含着石头。他还建造了一个地下室,这样他在练习的时候就不会被打扰,也不会打扰到别人。因为那时候的法庭很嘈杂,所以他在海边练习,保证声音在海浪的咆哮中清晰可辨。他在学习区所做的行为,和他在法庭上也就是展现区中的行为相去甚远。在学习区,安德斯埃里克森博士称这种行为为“有意练习”。


This involves breaking down abilities into component skills, being clear about what subskill we're working to improve, like keeping our shoulders down, giving full concentration to a high level of challenge outside our comfort zone, just beyond what we can currently do, using frequent feedback with repetition and adjustments, and ideally engaging the guidance of a skilled coach, because activities designed for improvement are domain-specific, and great teachers and coaches know what those activities are and can also give us expert feedback.
这种练习涉及到将大范围的能力分解成一个个组成部分的技能,明确我们要提高的子技能,就像狄摩西尼将肩膀放平那样,将精力集中在我们舒适区之外的更高一级的挑战,做一些超过我们现在正做的事,在不断重复的练习和调整中得到反馈,最好能得到前辈的指导,因为为了进步而设定行为其实是件很需要技术的事情。好的老师和教练了解什么行为能带来进步,也能给我们专业的反馈。
It is this type of practice in the learning zone which leads to substantial improvement, not just time on task performing. For example, research shows that after the first couple of years working in a profession, performance usually plateaus. This has been shown to be true in teaching, general medicine, nursing and other fields, and it happens because once we think we have become good enough, adequate, then we stop spending time in the learning zone. We focus all our time on just doing our job, performing, which turns out not to be a great way to improve.
在学习区中,正是这样的练习才能带给我们很大进步,而不是单纯地完成任务。例如,研究表明,在某一行业最初工作的几年,我们展现出来的进步就会停滞不前。这已经在教育、内科、护理以及其他工作领域都得到了印证。我们一旦认为自己足够好、足够适合工作,就会停止学习,而这种停滞就会发生在我们身上。我们仅是把时间花费在完成工作上,也就是表现,这并不是进步的好方法。
But the people who continue to spend time in the learning zone do continue to always improve. The best salespeople at least once a week do activities with the goal of improvement. They read to extend their knowledge, consult with colleagues or domain experts, try out new strategies, solicit feedback and reflect. The best chess players spend a lot of time not playing games of chess, which would be their performance zone, but trying to predict the moves grand masters made and analyzing them.
相反的,那些继续花费大量时间在学习区的人,却真的在不停进步。最好的推销员会至少每周一次地进行自我提高的活动。他们通过阅读拓展知识,会与同事或专家交流,尝试新的营销策略并且收集反馈并研究,而最好的国际象棋棋手,并不会将大部分时间花在他们的表现区下象棋本身,而是会去努力分析预测象棋大师的着子并加以分析。
Each of us has probably spent many, many, many hours typing on a computer without getting faster, but if we spent 10 to 20 minutes each day fully concentrating on typing 10 to 20 percent faster than our current reliable speed, we would get faster, especially if we also identified what mistakes we're making and practiced typing those words. That's deliberate practice.
我们大家每天都花了好多个小时在电脑打字,却并没有打得更快速。但是,如果我们每天都抽出10-20分钟专门去练习如何提升打字速度,就会比平时快上10%-20%, 我们不仅会提升我们的打字速度,还会找出我们在打字的时候常常犯的错误,并且加以纠正练习。这就是“有意练习”。
In what other parts of our lives, perhaps that we care more about, are we working hard but not improving much because we're always in the performance zone? Now, this is not to say that the performance zone has no value. It very much does. When I needed a knee surgery, I didn't tell the surgeon, "Poke around in there and focus on what you don't know."
在我们生活的其他方面,也许我们有更在乎的领域,那些我们努力过但提升很少的领域,这是因为我们总是停留在表现区的缘故吗?当然,这并不是意味着表现区毫无价值,相反的,它非常有价值。我不会告诉那位帮我做膝盖手术的主治医生说,”您就随意弄吧,拿我的膝盖去练习你的薄弱技能吧。“
"We'll learn from your mistakes!" I looked for a surgeon who I felt would do a good job, and I wanted her to do a good job. Being in the performance zone allows us to get things done as best as we can. It can also be motivating, and it provides us with information to identify what to focus on next when we go back to the learning zone.
“我们都会从你的错误中吸取教训的!”我当然想要找一个我认为能做好手术的外科医生,我也想让她顺利完成手术。在展现区做事就要求我们做到最好。这本身就是一种鞭策,它也能让我们知道,当我们回到学习区的时候, 我们应当注意什么。
So the way to high performance is to alternate between the learning zone and the performance zone, purposefully building our skills in the learning zone, then applying those skills in the performance zone.
通往更好表现的路,就是在学习区和表现区来回转换的路。我们有目的地在学习区积攒技能,然后将其用于表现区
When Beyoncé is on tour, during the concert, she's in her performance zone, but every night when she gets back to the hotel room, she goes right back into her learning zone. She watches a video of the show that just ended. She identifies opportunities for improvement, for herself, her dancers and her camera staff.
当碧昂斯举办巡回演唱会时,演唱会就是她的表现区。但是当她每晚回到酒店房间时,她就径直回到了她的学习区。她会观看刚刚结束的演出的录像。为她自己、舞者、摄像组寻求进步的突破口。
And the next morning, everyone receives pages of notes with what to adjust, which they then work on during the day before the next performance. It's a spiral to ever-increasing capabilities, but we need to know when we seek to learn, and when we seek to perform, and while we want to spend time doing both, the more time we spend in the learning zone, the more we'll improve.
第二天早上,每个人都会收到几页笔记,上面写着他们需要在下次演出前需要调整解决的问题。提高能力是一个螺旋上升的过程,但是我们必须知道什么时候学习、什么时候表现。如果想要两者兼顾,那么我们花在学习区的时间越多,我们的进步就会越明显。

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