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TED 一线医生亲述抗击埃博拉经历 [复制链接]

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离线jenny
 

June 13, 2014 started as a routine Friday in Redemption Hospital in Monrovia, the capital of Liberia. Redemption is the largest free public health hospital in the city. We are called upon to serve hundreds of thousands of people. In the best of times it puts strain on our resources. Monthly supplies run out within weeks, and patients without beds would be seated in chairs. That summer, we had a nurse who had been sick for a while. Sick enough to be admitted in our hospital. But our treatment didn't seem to be helping her; her symptoms were getting worse: diarrhea, severe abdominal pain, fever and weakness. On that particular Friday, she developed severe respiratory distress, and her eyes were menacingly red.
2014年6月13日,一个寻常的周五,利比里亚(西非国家)首都蒙罗维亚的救赎医院。救赎医院是当地最大的免费公立医院。在这里我们作为医生治疗过数十万患者。然而即便医院运行良好,医疗资源也相当紧张。每月的医疗物资一两周内就消耗殆尽,没有床位的病人只能坐在椅子上接受治疗。那年夏天,医院有位护士病了一段时间,后来严重到需要入院治疗。但我们的治疗似乎并没有帮助到她;她的症状越来越严重:如腹泻、严重腹痛、发烧和虚弱等。就在那个周五,她出现了重度呼吸困难,眼睛变成了不正常的红色。


One of my fellow doctors, a general surgeon, became suspicious of her condition. He said her symptoms were suggestive of Ebola. We kept a close watch on her, we tried to help her. We were treating her for malaria, typhoid and gastroenteritis. We didn't know it, but by then it was too late. The next morning I walked in to check on my patient. I could tell by the look in her eyes that she was filled with fear. I gave her reassurance, but shortly after ... she died of Ebola.
我的同事,医院的一名普外科医生,对她的病情有所怀疑,认为她的症状疑似感染了埃博拉病毒。我们一直对她密切观察,并尽力帮助她。我们按照疟疾、伤寒和肠胃炎对她进行治疗,但我们不知道,那时候为时已晚。第二天一早,我去给病人做检查,从她的眼神里我可以看出,她的内心充满了恐惧。我安慰了她,但不久后——她就死于埃博拉病毒感染。


For me, her death was very personal. But this was just the beginning. A virtual biological bomb had exploded. But the word spread faster than the virus, and panic spread across the hospital. All the patients ran away. Then, all the nurses and doctors ran away. This was the beginning of our medical tsunami -- the devastating Ebola virus that left an indelible scar in our country's history.
对我来说,她的死只是一个个例。然而,这仅仅是个开始。虚拟的生物炸弹已经爆炸。但流言比病毒传播得更快,恐慌蔓延到整个医院。所有的病人都逃走了。然后,几乎所有的医生和护士也都跑了。这就是我们的医疗海啸的开始——毁灭性的埃博拉病毒给我们国家的历史留下了不可磨灭的伤疤。


I was not trained for this. I had just graduated from medical school two years before. At this time, my total knowledge about Ebola came from a one-page article I had read in medical school. I perceived the disease as so dangerous, this one page in essence had convinced me to run out of the hospital, too, the moment I heard of a case of Ebola. But when it finally happened, I stayed on and decided to help. And so did several other brave health care professionals. But we would pay a heavy price.
我从没接受过应对这种问题的培训。那时我不过刚从医学院毕业两年。当时,我对埃博拉病毒的全部了解只是源于上学时读到的一篇一页纸的文章。而这页纸唯一的作用不过是让我觉得这种疾病太过危险,必须要望风而逃罢了。但当它最终发生时,我决定留下来帮助病人。其他好几位勇敢的医护人员也是如此。然而我们为此付出了沉重的代价。


Many persons and health professionals had become high-risk contacts. This actually meant 21 days counting to potentially disease or death. Our health systems were fragile, our health workers lacked skills and training. So in the weeks and months that followed, health workers were disproportionately affected by the Ebola virus disease. More than 400 nurses, doctors and other health professionals became infected. Unfortunately, my friend, the general surgeon who correctly identified the symptoms in that first case became one of the casualties.
许多医护人员已经变成有高感染风险的接触者,事实上这意味着,21天病毒潜伏期过后,我们可能会患病甚至死亡。我们的医疗体系如此脆弱,医护人员严重缺乏技术和训练。所以在接下来的几个月里,医护人员受到了埃博拉病毒的严重影响。超过400名护士、医生和卫生专家被病毒感染。不幸的是,我的朋友那个准确诊断出第一例埃博拉感染的普外科医生也因此丧生。


Many persons and health professionals had become high-risk contacts. This actually meant 21 days counting to potentially disease or death. Our health systems were fragile, our health workers lacked skills and training. So in the weeks and months that followed, health workers were disproportionately affected by the Ebola virus disease. More than 400 nurses, doctors and other health professionals became infected. Unfortunately, my friend, the general surgeon who correctly identified the symptoms in that first case became one of the casualties.
7月27日,利比里亚总统下令对受影响最严重的地区实施隔离。当地中小学和大学全部关闭,许多公共活动也被迫停止。4天后,美国和平队也撤出了利比里亚、塞拉利昂和几内亚,因为顾忌到埃博拉的肆虐。


In August, six weeks after the nurse died, hundreds of people were dying of the disease each week. People were dying in the streets. Over the months that followed, West Africa would lose thousands of people to Ebola virus disease. In August, I joined a team to set up the Ebola treatment unit at JFK hospital in Monrovia. I was charged with running the second Ebola treatment unit in the city. Our unit provided hope for thousands of patients, families and communities. I not only provided care, I came face to face with Ebola. Living every day as a high-risk Ebola virus disease contact during the worst of the outbreak was one of my worst experiences. I started counting 21 days every day. I lived every moment anticipating the onset of symptoms of the disease. I measured my body temperature several times. I showered with chlorinated water, more concentrated than actually recommended. I chlorinated my phones, my pants, my hands, my car. My clothes became bleached. Those days you were alone, people were so afraid of touching anybody. Everyone was counted as a potential contact. Touching would make them sick. I was stigmatized. But if that was what it was for me, who was symptom-free, imagine what it was for someone who actually had symptoms, someone who had Ebola.
8月,那位被感染的护士死亡6周后,每周都有上百人因埃博拉丧生,很多人就这么横死街头。此后的数月里,西非地区的埃博拉夺去了数千条人命。当年8月,我在蒙罗维亚的约翰肯尼迪(JFK)医院加入了一个团队,大家共同建立埃博拉医疗小组。我负责管理当地第二支埃博拉医疗小组。我们的治疗小组为上千名患者、他们的家人和社区带来了希望。我们不仅提供医疗护理,而且要和埃博拉病毒正面交锋。在病毒爆发最严重的时期,作为高埃博拉感染风险的接触者生活的每一天都是我最糟糕的一段经历。我开始每天计算21天的病毒潜伏期,时刻做好出现感染症状的准备。每天我都要量好几遍体温,用高于推荐浓度的氯化水洗澡。我用氯化水为我的手机、衣服、车子,还有双手消毒。我的衣服都被漂白了。那些日子里,你只能是一个人。人们都害怕和别人发生肢体接触。每个人都是潜在的病毒接触者。似乎一旦肢体接触,就会感染。我感到被羞辱。可是如果对我这个没有出现症状的人尚且如此,设想一下那些出现症状的人,那些真正被感染的人,他们又作何感想呢?


We learned that to treat Ebola successfully, we had to suspend some of the normal rules of society. Our president declared a state of emergency in August and suspended certain rights. And the national police even supported our work during the Ebola response. In February 2015, gang members came in for isolation in our Ebola isolation unit. They were also know as the VIP Boys of Monrovia, terrifying small-time drug addicts whose presence could instill a tremendous amount of fear, although they could not legally carry guns. They underwent quarantine for 21 days in our unit and were not arrested. We told the police, "If you arrest them here, they will stop coming, they won't get treated. And the Ebola virus will continue to spread." The police agreed, and we were able to treat the VIP Boys, and they did not have to worry about being arrested while in the unit.
我们意识到,要想成功治愈埃博拉,就不得不暂时摒弃正常的社会规则。利比里亚总统在8月份宣布国家进入紧急状态,并暂停了部分公民权利。国家警察甚至也来协助我们的工作。2015年2月,一批黑帮成员来到我们的伊波拉病毒隔离组接受隔离。这些人有个别号,叫“蒙罗维亚大佬”(VIP Boys of Monrovia)净是些可怕的瘾君子。虽然依照法律,这些人不能持枪,可他们的出现还是给人们造成了极大的恐慌。他们在我们的隔离组接受了为期21天的隔离,而且没有遭到逮捕。我们告诉警察,“你们要是在这儿逮捕这些人,他们就不会再来了,也无法得到治疗。埃博拉病毒将会因此继续扩散。”警方同意了我们的请求,我们得以对这些“大佬”进行了治疗,


We learned that to treat Ebola successfully, we had to suspend some of the normal rules of society. Our president declared a state of emergency in August and suspended certain rights. And the national police even supported our work during the Ebola response. In February 2015, gang members came in for isolation in our Ebola isolation unit. They were also know as the VIP Boys of Monrovia, terrifying small-time drug addicts whose presence could instill a tremendous amount of fear, although they could not legally carry guns. They underwent quarantine for 21 days in our unit and were not arrested. We told the police, "If you arrest them here, they will stop coming, they won't get treated. And the Ebola virus will continue to spread." The police agreed, and we were able to treat the VIP Boys, and they did not have to worry about being arrested while in the unit.
他们也不用担心在治疗期间被逮捕。整个病毒爆发期间,西非近29000人患病,11000多人丧生。这其中就包括我在蒙罗维亚约翰·肯尼迪医院工作期间的12位同事。2016年6月,恰好在我的首例埃博拉患者死亡23个月后,利比里亚宣布埃博拉疫情结束。我们本以为一旦疫情结束,其他问题也会迎刃而解。我们希望生活能够重新回到正轨。如今,西非有超过17000名埃博拉病毒的幸存者。这些人作为埃博拉的患者,经历了这一切并幸存了下来。我们将存活率视为成功:病人结束了痛苦,他们的家庭重获喜悦。每次患者出院,都是值得庆祝的时刻。至少我们是这么想的。


The best description of the moment of discharge and a rare glimpse into the moment that defines our life post-Ebola was vividly expressed in the words of my best friend and fellow doctor, Philip Ireland, in an interview with "The Times." He said at the time of his release, "There were a lot of people there from JFK hospital: my family, my elder brother, my wife was there. A lot of other doctors were there, too, and members of the media were there. And I felt like Nelson Mandela, it felt like the 'Long Walk to Freedom,' and I walked and raised my hands to the heaven, thanking God for saving my life." And Philip said, "Then I saw something else. There were a lot of crying people, people happy to see me. But when I got close to anybody, they backed away."
我的好友兼同事,菲利普·爱尔兰医生在接受《时代周刊》采访时,用寥寥数语生动的描述了出院时的景象,以及战胜埃博拉之后的生活。他在出院时说,“约翰·肯尼迪医院来了好多人:我的家人、我的哥哥、我的妻子都在。很多医生也来了,还有不少媒体也在。我感觉自己就像曼德拉,出院的那几步路就是‘通往自由的漫漫长路’,我一边走,一边将双手举向天空,感谢上帝的救命之恩。“菲利普说,”然后我看到了别的东西。有很多哭泣的人,他们因为见到了我喜极而泣。可当我走近他们的时候,他们却向后退开了。”


For many Ebola survivors, society still seems to be backing away, even as they struggle to lead a normal life. For these survivors, life can be compared to another health emergency. They may suffer debilitating joint and body pain. The suffering gradually decays over time for most. However, many continue to bear intermittent pain. Some survivors are blind, others have neurological disabilities. Some survivors experience stigmatization every day, in many ways. A lot of children are orphans. Some survivors experience post-traumatic stress disorder. And some survivors lack opportunity for education. Even families can be split apart by fear of Ebola, too.
对于许多埃博拉的幸存者而言,整个社会似乎在疏离他们,即使他们为过上正常的生活而竭尽了全力。对于这些幸存者而言,生活本身就是另一出健康危机。他们或许会饱受关节无力和身体疼痛的折磨。对于他们中的大多数来说,痛苦会随时间慢慢减弱。然而,不少人要继续忍受着间歇性疼痛,一些幸存者失明了,另一些出现了神经障碍。有的幸存者每天都在遭受各种羞辱,很多孩子都变成了孤儿,一些幸存者患上了创伤后应激障碍(PTSD),还有人错失了受教育的机会,对于埃博拉的恐惧甚至让很多家庭分崩离析。


There's no definitive cure for transmitting Ebola virus through sex. However, there are successful interventions for prevention. We have worked hard on semen testing, behavioral counseling, safe sex promotion and research. For the past year, there have been no cases of sexual transmission. But some male survivors have lost their spouses out of fear they will be infected with Ebola. That's how families are torn apart.
对于埃博拉病毒的性传播,目前还没有根治的方法,但是,通过医疗干预可以成功进行预防。我们在精液检测、行为咨询、提倡安全性行为以及相关研究方面下了很大功夫。过去一年间都没有出现性传播的病例。但是一些男性幸存者的配偶还是因为害怕被传染而离开了。家庭就是这样破裂的。


Another tremendous challenge for Ebola survivors is obtaining adequate health care. In theory, Liberia's public health services are free of charge. In practice, our health system lacks the funding and capacity to expand care to all at the point of need. Many survivors have waited many months to undergo surgery to heal their blinding cataracts. Few had to relive the traumatic experience, when their blood was retested for Ebola at the point of admission. Some survivors experienced delayed or deferred admission due to limited bed capacity. No bed available for one more patient. This is neither national policy nor officially condoned, but many people are still afraid of the sporadic resurgence of Ebola virus.
埃博拉幸存者所面临的另一个巨大挑战,就是获取充足的医疗保障。理论上,利比里亚的公共医疗是免费的,而实际上,我们的医疗体系缺乏资金和能力,无法为所有人在需要的时候提供保障。很多幸存者都要等上好几个月才能接受白内障手术。少数人不得不再次体验疾病爆发时的惨痛经历,因为他们在入院时会重新接受针对埃博拉病毒的血检,一些幸存者在需要住院的时候不是被推迟,就是被延期,因为医院的床位不够,没法再多容纳哪怕一位患者。这种行为既不是国家政策,也不是官方授意的,但是很多人还是害怕埃博拉病毒零星复发。


The results can be tragic. I have seen Beatrice, an Ebola survivor, several times now. She's 26 years old. Many of her family members became infected, she luckily survived. But since that day in 2014 she was discharged to cheering health workers, her life has never been the same. She became blind as the result of Ebola. In 2014, the baby of a dear friend of mine was only two months old, when both parents and child were admitted in an Ebola treatment unit in Monrovia. Luckily, they survived. My friend's baby is almost three years old now, but cannot stand, cannot walk, cannot speak. He has failure to thrive. There are many more hidden experiences and many stories are yet untold.
因为一旦发生,后果不堪设想。有一位名叫碧翠斯的埃博拉幸存者,我见过她很多次了。她今年26岁。她家里有不少人感染了埃博拉,而她幸运地活了下来。但是自从2014年她出院,与医务人员一起欢呼后,她的人生从此就不同了。因为埃博拉,她丧失了视力。2014年,我一个好朋友的孩子才不过2个月大,那时他们一家三口都在蒙罗维亚医疗小组接受埃博拉病毒治疗。幸运的是,他们都活了下来。我朋友的孩子现在已经快3岁了,但是他无法站立、不会走路,甚至不能说话。他没办法茁壮成长,许多类似的经历和故事都还不为人知。


The survivors of Ebola deserve our attention and support. The only way we can defeat this pandemic is when we ensure that we win this final battle. Our best opportunity is to ensure that every survivor receives adequate care at the point of need without any form of stigma and at no cost to them personally. How can a society consider itself healed when a person's entire identity is defined by the fact that they recovered from Ebola? Should a previous disease that a person no longer has become the sum total of their identity, the identifier in their passport that deters you from traveling to seek medical care abroad? Simply the ID that denies you health care. Or prevents you from having a relationship with your spouse. Or denies you of family, of friend or home. Or prevents you from carrying on your normal job, so you can put food on the table or have a roof over your family's head.
我们应该给予埃博拉病毒的幸存者们更多的关注和支持。只有当我们在这场最后的战役中取得成功,才算是真的战胜了这场流行病。实现这一目标最好的方法,就是确保每位幸存者在需要时能够得到充分的照顾,要让他们免遭羞辱,不必负担个人费用。当一个人的身份完全被埃博拉幸存者所定义,又怎么能认为社会的创伤已经被抚平?难道已经治愈了的疾病应该成为个人身份的全部,成为护照里的一个标识,让这个人无法出国就医吗?仅仅是埃博拉幸存者,就得不到医疗保障,无法维系正常夫妻关系,不再拥有家人、朋友或是住所,无法继续正常工作,缺衣少食,无处容身。


What is the meaning of the right to life when our life is clouded by stigma and barriers that fuel that stigma? Until we have much better answers to those questions in West Africa, our work is not over yet.
当我们的生活被羞辱和隔阂笼罩之时,生命权的意义又是什么?在西非为这些问题找到更好的答案之前,我们的工作还远没有结束。


Liberians are a resilient people. And we know how to rise to a challenge, even a devastating one. My best memories of the outbreak center on those many people who survived the disease, but I cannot forget the hard-working nurses, doctors, volunteers and staff who risked their own safety in service of humanity. And some even losing their lives in the process. During the worst of the contagion, one thing kept us making those perilous daily journeys into the Ebola wards. We had a passion to save lives.
利比里亚人民是坚韧的民族,我们知道如何应对挑战,甚至是毁灭性的挑战。我对于这次疫情爆发的最美好的回忆主要来自于那些幸存者,但那些奋力工作的医生、护士、志愿者和工作人员也都令我难忘,他们牺牲自身的安危进行人道救助,一些人甚至为此付出了生命。在疫情最严重的时候,一股力量让我们日复一日冒险进入埃博拉病房,那就是治病救人的热情。


Was I afraid during the Ebola outbreak? Of course I was. But for me, the opportunity to protect our global health security and keep communities safe at home and abroad was an honor. So as the dangers became greater, our humanity became stronger. We faced our fears. The global health community working together defeated Ebola, and that ... that is how I know that we can defeat its aftermath in our hearts, in our minds and in our communities.
要问我在埃博拉爆发的时候害怕吗?答案当然是肯定的,但对我而言,守护全球健康安全,让国内外的人免受疾病之苦,是我的荣幸。因此危险越巨大,我们的人性也就越强大。我们能直面自己的恐惧。全球健康组织团结一致对抗埃博拉,而这——也让我明白,我们终将荡平埃博拉的余波,无论是在情感、意识层面,还是在人与人之间,都将如此。


Thank you.
谢谢。


离线jenny

只看该作者 沙发  发表于: 02-07
TED:假新闻疯转时,我们离真相还有多远?
I want to tell you a story about a girl. But I can't tell you her real name. So let's just call her Hadiza.
我想讲一个女孩子的故事。但是我不能说出她的真名。就叫她哈迪扎好了。

Hadiza is 20. She's shy, but she has a beautiful smile that lights up her face. But she's in constant pain. And she will likely be on medication for the rest of her life.
哈迪扎今年20岁。她很害羞,但是笑起来很好看,活力四射。但她生活在痛苦中。她很可能需要终身药物治疗。

Do you want to know why? Hadiza is a Chibok girl, and on April 14, 2014, she was kidnapped by Boko Haram terrorists. She managed to escape, though, by jumping off the truck that was carrying the girls. But when she landed, she broke both her legs, and she had to crawl on her tummy to hide in the bushes. She told me she was terrified that Boko Haram would come back for her. She was one of 57 girls who would escape by jumping off trucks that day.
你们想知道为什么吗?哈迪扎来自奇博克,在2014年4月14日,她被“博科圣地”恐怖分子绑架。不过,她成功逃过一劫,跳下了载满女孩的卡车。但是她的腿在跳车时摔断了,她不得不爬进灌木丛躲藏。她告诉我,她当时吓坏了,害怕“博科圣地”的人会回来抓她。那天跳车逃生的共有57名女孩,她是其中之一。

This story, quite rightly, caused ripples around the world. People like Michelle Obama, Malala and others lent their voices in protest, and at about the same time -- I was living in London at the time -- I was sent from London to Abuja to cover the World Economic Forum that Nigeria was hosting for the first time. But when we arrived, it was clear that there was only one story in town. We put the government under pressure. We asked tough questions about what they were doing to bring these girls back. Understandably, they weren't too happy with our line of questioning, and let's just say we received our fair share of "alternative facts."
这个故事很快在全球范围内引起关注。米歇尔·奥巴马、马拉拉等人都加入声援,与此同时——当时我住在伦敦——我被派到阿布贾去报道世界经济论坛,那是(论坛)首次在尼日利亚举办。但在当时的阿布贾,很明显(绑架案)才是大家唯一关心的事。我们给政府施加了很大的压力。问了很多尖锐的问题,询问他们解救这些女孩子的进展。可以理解的是,他们不太喜欢我们咄咄逼人的问题,因此我们只得到了一些“莫须有的事实”。

Influential Nigerians were telling us at the time that we were naïve, we didn't understand the political situation in Nigeria. But they also told us that the story of the Chibok girls was a hoax. Sadly, this hoax narrative has persisted, and there are still people in Nigeria today who believe that the Chibok girls were never kidnapped. Yet I was talking to people like these -- devastated parents, who told us that on the day Boko Haram kidnapped their daughters, they ran into the Sambisa Forest after the trucks carrying their daughters. They were armed with machetes, but they were forced to turn back because Boko Haram had guns.
当时尼日利亚一些有影响力的人告诉我们我们太天真了,根本不了解尼日利亚的政治局势。但他们也告诉我们奇博克女生绑架案是假的。可悲的是,这个虚假的版本依然流传着,直到今天还有很多尼日利亚人认为奇博克女生绑架案没有发生过。但我的采访是真实的,我采访过那些绝望的父母,他们告诉我,“博科圣地”绑架了他们女儿的那天,他们追着卡车冲进了塞比萨森林。他们带着大砍刀,却被迫退了回来,因为“博科圣地”的人拿着枪。

For two years, inevitably, the news agenda moved on, and for two years, we didn't hear much about the Chibok girls. Everyone presumed they were dead. But in April last year, I was able to obtain this video. This is a still from the video that Boko Haram filmed as a proof of life, and through a source, I obtained this video. But before I could publish it, I had to travel to the northeast of Nigeria to talk to the parents, to verify it. I didn't have to wait too long for confirmation. One of the mothers, when she watched the video, told me that if she could have reached into the laptop and pulled our her child from the laptop, she would have done so. For those of you who are parents, like myself, in the audience, you can only imagine the anguish that that mother felt.
2年过去了,不可避免的,媒体的关注越来越少,过去2年,我们已经很少听到奇博克女学生的消息。所有人都推测她们已经死了。但是去年4月,我通过某种途径拿到了这个录像。这是从录像中抽出的一幅画面,“博科圣地”用录像证明她们还活着,通过某种渠道,我拿到了这份录像。但在我公开录像之前,我需要去尼日利亚的东北部,去找女孩的父母,确认(录像的)真实性。我几乎立刻得到了确认。其中一位母亲看到这段录像后告诉我,她多么希望能够把手伸进笔记本电脑把她的女儿从屏幕里拽出来,她一秒钟都不能等。在座的各位,如果你们像我一样,已经为人父母,你大概就能想象到那位母亲所承受的巨大痛苦。

This video would go on to kick-start negotiation talks with Boko Haram. And a Nigerian senator told me that because of this video they entered into those talks, because they had long presumed that the Chibok girls were dead. Twenty-one girls were freed in October last year. Sadly, nearly 200 of them still remain missing.
这段录像成为跟“博科圣地”谈判的起点。一位尼日利亚议员告诉我,正是因为这段录像,他们才开始进行谈判,因为他们很久以前就已经推测这些奇博克女生已经死了。去年10月,21名女生得以被释放。不幸的是,仍有约200名女生下落不明。

I must confess that I have not been a dispassionate observer covering this story. I am furious when I think about the wasted opportunities to rescue these girls. I am furious when I think about what the parents have told me, that if these were daughters of the rich and the powerful, they would have been found much earlier. And I am furious that the hoax narrative, I firmly believe, caused a delay; it was part of the reason for the delay in their return.
我必须承认,在报道这则新闻的时候,我并不是个中立的观察者。每当我想起那么多解救她们的机会被白白浪费的时候,我就非常的愤怒。每当我想起那些女孩的父母告诉我,如果她们的家庭富有且有权势,那么肯定早就被解救出来了的时候我就非常的愤怒。我还愤怒于那些假新闻,我非常肯定,这些假新闻拖延了救援,导致女生们没能早些回家。

This illustrates to me the deadly danger of fake news. So what can we do about it? There are some very smart people, smart engineers at Google and Facebook, who are trying to use technology to stop the spread of fake news. But beyond that, I think everybody here -- you and I -- we have a role to play in that. We are the ones who share the content. We are the ones who share the stories online. In this day and age, we're all publishers, and we have responsibility.
这让我看到了假新闻的致命危险性。那么我们能做什么?在谷歌和脸书有一群非常聪明的工程师,努力用高科技手段来阻止假新闻的传播。但除此之外,我相信在座的每一位——包括你和我——都有义务参与其中。我们是分享新闻的人。我们在网上传播报道。在当今社会,我们都是出版者,我们都承担着责任。

In my job as a journalist, I check, I verify. I trust my gut, but I ask tough questions. Why is this person telling me this story? What do they have to gain by sharing this information? Do they have a hidden agenda? I really believe that we must all start to ask tougher questions of information that we discover online.
作为一名记者,我检查和确认(报道的)真实性。我相信直觉,也提出质疑。为什么这个人要告诉我这个故事?他们分享这些信息的目的是什么?他们是否暗地里另有所图?我真的认为,从现在开始,对于从网上得到的信息,我们需要提出质疑。

Research shows that some of us don't even read beyond headlines before we share stories. Who here has done that? I know I have. But what if we stopped taking information that we discover at face value? What if we stop to think about the consequence of the information that we pass on and its potential to incite violence or hatred? What if we stop to think about the real-life consequences of the information that we share?
研究显示,我们中有些人在转发一条新闻之前,甚至只看了一眼标题。你们谁这么干过?我就这么干过。但是如果我们停止转发那些我们匆匆一瞥看到的信息会怎样?如果我们停下来想一想,我们的转发可能包含暴力或仇恨言论,会有什么后果,会怎样?如果我们在转发之前,认真的想一想这样的行为会对真实的世界造成什么影响,又会怎样?

Thank you very much for listening.
非常感谢大家的聆听。
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