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TED 一个人的成长离不开反馈 [复制链接]

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在线jenny
 

Everyone needs a coach. It doesn't matter whether you're a basketball player, a tennis player, a gymnast or a bridge player.
每一个人都需要一位教练。无论你是篮球运动员,网球运动员,体操选手或者是打桥牌的。
My bridge coach, Sharon Osberg, says there are more pictures of the back of her head than anyone else's in the world. (Laughter)Sorry, Sharon. Here you go.
我的桥牌教练,Sharon Osberg,说包含她后脑勺的照片比世界上其他任何人的都多。抱歉,Sharon。这张应该可以了。
We all need people who will give us feedback. That's how we improve. Unfortunately, there's one group of people who get almost no systematic feedback to help them do their jobs better, and these people have one of the most important jobs in the world. I'm talking about teachers. When Melinda and I learned how little useful feedback most teachers get, we were blown away.
我们都需要能给我们反馈信息的人。这是我们不断自我发展的方式。遗憾的是,有一群人几乎收不到系统化的反馈信息来提高他们的工作效率,而这一群人从事着世界上最重要的职业之一。我指的就是老师们。当Melinda和我了解到大部分老师得到的有用的反馈有多么少时,我们惊呆了。
Until recently, over 98 percent of teachers just got one word of feedback: Satisfactory. If all my bridge coach ever told me was that I was "satisfactory," I would have no hope of ever getting better. How would I know who was the best? How would I know what I was doing differently? Today, districts are revamping the way they evaluate teachers, but we still give them almost no feedback that actually helps them improve their practice.
直到最近,超过98%的老师得到的反馈只包含一个词:满意。如果我的桥牌教练只跟我说我的表现“令人满意”,我永远也不可能变得更好。我怎么知道谁是最好的?我怎么知道什么事我做的和别人不一样?现在,各个校区都在改进评估教师的方式,但是我们仍给他们很少能够提高他们工作水平的反馈信息。
Our teachers deserve better. The system we have today isn't fair to them. It's not fair to students, and it's putting America's global leader ship at risk. So today I want to talk about how we can help all teachers get the tools for improvement they want and deserve.
我们的教师应该受到更好的对待。今天我们在用的系统对他们不公平。这系统对学生也不公平,而且置美国的全球领导地位于水深火热之中。因此今天我想讲讲我们如何能帮助所有的老师获得他们想要而且值得获得的提高自己的工具。
Let's start by asking who's doing well. Well, unfortunately there's no international ranking tables for teacher feedback systems. So I looked at the countries whose students perform well academically, and looked at what they're doing to help their teachers improve. Consider the rankings for reading proficiency.
我们先来问问谁做得比较好。遗憾的是,国际上没有一个用来给评估老师的系统分等级的标准。所以我看了看那些拥有学术表现非常好的学生的国家,然后看看他们在做什么来帮助他们的教师提高教学水平。我们来看看阅读水平的排名。
The U.S. isn't number one. We're not even in the top 10. We're tied for 15th with Iceland and Poland. Now, out of all the places that do better than the U.S. in reading, how many of them have a formal system for helping teachers improve? Eleven out of 14.
美国并不是第一。我们甚至连前十都没能进入。我们和冰岛以及波兰并列排名第15名。在阅读水平方面做得比美国出色的地方中又有多少个拥有能帮助教师提高自己的正规流程?14个。
The U.S. is tied for 15th in reading, but we're 23rd in science and 31st in math. So there's really only one area where we're near the top, and that's in failing to give our teachers the help they need to develop their skills.
在阅读方面美国并列第15名,但在科学与数学方面我们分别排在第23名与第31名。因此我们只有一个方面排名比较靠前,而那就是无法提供给教师发展自己所需要的帮助。
Let's look at the best academic performer: the province of Shanghai, China. Now, they rank number one across the board, in reading, math and science, and one of the keys to Shanghai's incredible success is the way they help teachers keep improving.
我们来看看学业上表现最好的地区:中国的上海。他们在阅读,数学以及科学等所有方面排名都是第一,而上海能有这种令人惊讶的成功的关键之一就在于他们帮助教师不断自我发展的方式。
They made sure that younger teachers get a chance to watch master teachers at work. They have weekly study groups, where teachers get together and talk about what's working. They even require each teacher to observe and give feedback to their colleagues.
他们确保年轻的教师有机会看到资深教师授课。他们每周都有让老师聚在一起并讨论哪些教学方法比较有用的学习会。他们甚至要求每位老师观察他的同事并给他们反馈信息。
You might ask, why is a system like this so important? It's because there's so much variation in the teaching profession. Some teachers are far more effective than others. In fact, there are teachers through out the country who are helping their students make extraordinary gains. If today's average teacher could become as good as those teachers, our students would be blowing away the rest of the world. So we need a system that helps all our teachers be as good as the best.
也许你会问,为什么这样的系统那么重要?这是因为在教师这个职业中有太多的不同。有的教师的教学效率远远超过其他教师。事实上,在全国各地有一些老师正在帮助他们的学生实现难以想象的巨大进步。如果今天的普通老师能和那些老师一样好,我们的学生就可以在全世界独领风骚了。因此我们需要一个能使我们每一位教师和最好的教师一样好的系统。
What would that system look like? Well, to find out, our foundation has been working with 3,000 teachers in districts across the country on a project called Measures of Effective Teaching. We had observers watch videos of teachers in the classroom and rate how they did on a range of practices.
这样一个系统会是什么样子的?为了查明这个事情,我们的基金会和全国各个校区的3000多名老师合作开展了一个叫“有效教育方式”(MET)的项目。我们派遣观察员观看老师在教学中的录像并且评估他们所做的一系列事情。
For example, did they ask their students challenging questions? Did they find multiple ways to explain an idea? We also had student sfill out surveys with questions like, "Does your teacher know when the class understands a lesson?" "Do you learn to correct your mistakes?"
举例来说,他们有没有问学生具有挑战性的问题?他们有没有找到多种方式来解释一个概念?我们也让学生做包含如“你的老师是否知道整个班级听懂了一堂课?”“你是否学会了改正错误?”等问题的问卷。
And what we found is very exciting. First, the teachers who did well on these observations had far better student outcomes. So it tells us we're asking the right questions. And second, teachers in the program told us that these videos and these surveys from the students were very helpful diagnostic tools, because they pointed to specific places where they can improve. I want to show you what this video component of MET looks like inaction.
结果令我们非常惊喜。首先,在这些评测中表现很好的老师所教出来的学生也更好。这说明我们问的问题是对的。其次,参与这个项目的老师告诉我们这些录像以及向学生发放的调查问卷是非常有用的诊断工具,因为它们指明了教师们能够改进的具体环节。我想让你们看看MET中的视频部分是什么样的。
Sarah Brown Wessling: Good morning everybody. Let's talk about what's going on today. To get started, we're doing a peer review day, okay? A peer review day, and our goal by the end of class is for you to be able to determine whether or not you have moves to prove in your essays.
Sarah Brown Wessling:大家早上好。让我们说说今天干些什么。首先,今天将会是一个“同学互评日”。这个“同学互评日”的目的就是在下课前大家可以好好判断自己作文是不是经得起推敲。
My name is Sarah Brown Wessling. I am a high school English teacher at Johnston High School in Johnston, Iowa.
我的名字是Sarah Brown Wessling。我在衣阿华州的Johnston的Johnston高中担任英语老师。
Turn to somebody next to you. Tell them what you think I mean when I talk about moves to prove. I've talk about --I think that there is a difference for teachers between the abstract of how we see our practice and then the concrete reality of it.
转向你们身边的一个人。告诉他们你认为我说“经得起推敲”时我是什么意思。我曾说过--我认为对于老师而言,我们对我们的表现的抽象看法和实际情况是有区别的。
Okay, so I would like you to please bring up your papers.
好的,请你们拿出你们的纸张。
I think what video offers for us is a certain degree of reality. You can't really dispute what you see on the video, and there is a lot to be learned from that, and there are a lot of ways that we can grow as a profession when we actually get to see this. I just have a flip camera and a little tripod and invested in this tiny little wide-angle lens.
我认为视频给我们展现了某种程度的现实。你无法对你在视频中看到的表示异议,你从中能学到很多,而且当我们看到它时我们看到有很多方式能让我们的职业水平更上一层楼。我只有这个轻按相机和这个小小的三脚架并再花了一点钱买了这个微小的广角镜。
At the beginning of class, I just perch it in the back of the classroom. It's not a perfect shot. It doesn't catch every little thing that's going on. But I can hear the sound. I can see a lot. And I'm able to learn a lot from it. So it really has been a simple but powerful tool in my own reflection.
在开始上课的时候,我就把相机放在教室的后面。视角并非完美。它没法捕捉到发生的每一件事。但我能听见声音。我能看到很多。而且我能从中学到很多。因此它成了一个用于自我反思的简单而强大的工具。
All right, let's take a look at the long one first, okay?
好的,我们先看看比较长的一段,怎么样?
Once I'm finished taping, then I put it in my computer, and then I'll scan it and take a peek at it. If I don't write things down, I don't remember them.
一旦录完了,我就把它放到电脑里,扫描一下然后看一眼。如果我不把东西写下来我就无法记住它们。
So having the notes is a part of my thinking process, and I discover what I'm seeing as I'm writing. I really have used it for my own personal growth and my own personal reflection on teaching strategy and methodology and classroom management, and just all of those different facets of the classroom.
因此记笔记也是我思考过程中的一部分,而当我在做记录时我也就发现了我在看的是什么。我把它用于我的个人成长以及关于教学方式,教学原则,课堂管理等各种各样的和课堂有关的方面的个人反思。
I'm glad that we've actually done the process before so we can kind of compare what works, what doesn't.
我很高兴我们以前做过类似的事情所以我们能通过比较得出孰优孰劣。
I think that video exposes so much of what's intrinsic to us as teachers in ways that help us learn and help us understand, and then help our broader communities understand what this complex work is really all about. I think it is a way to exemplify and illustrate things that we cannot convey in a lesson plan, things you cannot convey in a standard, things that you cannot even sometimes convey in a book of pedagogy.
我觉得视频揭示了大量的所对我们老师而言从根本上帮助我们学习和理解的方式方法,并且也帮助社会理解这个复杂的工作究竟是干嘛的。我认为这展现了一些事情他们是我们无法用教学计划,一个标准,甚至一个关于教育学的书来表达的。
Alrighty, everybody, have a great weekend. I'll see you later.
好了,大家,祝你们周末愉快。下次见。
[Every classroom could look like that]
[每一个教室都能像那样]
Bill Gates: One day, we'd like every classroom in America to look something like that. But we still have more work to do. Diagnosing areas where a teacher needs to improve is only half the battle. We also have to give them the tools they need to act on the diagnosis. If you learn that you need to improve the way you teach fractions, you should be able to watch a video of the best person in the world teaching fractions.
比尔盖茨:我们希望有一天全美的教室都可以像这样。但我们还有很多事要做。梳理出一位老师在什么地方需要改进只是战斗的一半。我们还要给他们能让他们基于诊断结果采取措施的工具。如果你知道你要提高自己教分数的方式,你应该可以看一段世上最好的人教分数的视频。
So building this complete teacher feedback and improvement system won't be easy. For example, I know some teachers aren't immediately comfortable with the idea of a camera in the classroom. That's understandable, but our experience with MET suggests that if teachers manage the process, if they collect video in their own classrooms, and they pick the lessons they want to submit, a lot of them will be eager to participate.
所以说建立一个完整的能给予老师反馈信息以及自我发展手段的系统不会简单。比如说,我知道一些老师对于在教室中放一个摄像机这样的想法感到不舒适。这是可以理解的,但是我们在MET中的经验说明了如果老师们能忍受这一个过程,如果他们在教室中录制视频,然后选择他们想提交的视频,很多老师会踊跃参与。
Building this system will also require a considerable investment. Our foundation estimates that it could cost up to five billion dollars. Now that's a big number, but to put it in perspective, it's less than two percent of what we spend every year on teacher salaries.
建立这样一个体系也会需要大量的投资。我们的基金会估计会花费多至50亿美元。这是一个庞大的数字,但如果我们换一个视角来看,这比我们每年付给老师的工资的2%还要少。
The impact for teachers would be phenomenal. We would finally have a way to give them feedback, as well as them eans to act on it.
这样一个系统对于老师的影响是无法估量的。我们终于会有一个能给他们反馈信息,并让他们照此采取措施的方式。
But this system would have an even more important benefit for our country. It would put us on a path to making sure all our students get a great education, find a career that's fulfilling and rewarding, and have a chance to live out their dreams. This wouldn't just make us a more successful country. It would also make us a more fair and just one, too.
但是这样一个系统对我们国家的好处会更大。它会让我们走上一条能确保我们的学生能收到良好教育,找到一份报酬丰厚而且令人满意的事业,并且让他们有机会实现自己的梦想的道路。这不仅会使我们的国家更成功。这也会使我们的国家更充满公平与正义。
I'm excited about the opportunity to give all our teachers the support they want and deserve. I hope you are too.
我为能给老师们他们想要且应得的支援的机会感到欣喜。我希望大家也是。
Thank you.(Applause)
谢谢。(掌声)
https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/a50mq7JbjSo9Mk7TZDHEkQ
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