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TED:女人,不要完美,但一定要勇敢 [复制链接]

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So a few years ago, I did something really brave, or some would say really stupid. I ran forCongress.
For years, I had existed safely behind the scenes in politics as a fundraiser, as an organizer, butin my heart, I always wanted to run. The sitting congresswoman had been in my district since1992. She had never lost a race, and no one had really even run against her in a Democraticprimary. But in my mind, this was my way to make a difference, to disrupt the status quo. Thepolls, however, told a very different story.
My pollsters told me that I was crazy to run, thatthere was no way that I could win.
But I ran anyway, and in 2012, I became an upstart in a New York City congressional race. Iswore I was going to win. I had the endorsement from the New York Daily News, the WallStreet Journal snapped pictures of me on election day, and CNBC called it one of the hottestraces in the country. I raised money from everyone I knew, including Indian aunties that werejust so happy an Indian girl was running.
But on election day, the polls were right, and I only got19 percent of the vote, and the same papers that said I was a rising political star now said Iwasted 1.3 million dollars on 6,321 votes. Don't do the math. It was humiliating.
Now, before you get the wrong idea, this is not a talk about the importance of failure. Nor is itabout leaning in. I tell you the story of how I ran for Congress because I was 33 years old and itwas the first time in my entire life that I had done something that was truly brave, where I didn'tworry about being perfect.
And I'm not alone: so many women I talk to tell me that they gravitate towards careers andprofessions that they know they're going to be great in, that they know they're going to beperfect in, and it's no wonder why. Most girls are taught to avoid risk and failure. We're taught tosmile pretty, play it safe, get all A's. Boys, on the other hand, are taught to play rough, swinghigh, crawl to the top of the monkey bars and then just jump off headfirst. And by the timethey're adults, whether they're negotiating a raise or even asking someone out on a date,they're habituated to take risk after risk. They're rewarded for it. It's often said in Silicon Valley,no one even takes you seriously unless you've had two failed start-ups. In other words, we'reraising our girls to be perfect, and we're raising our boys to be brave.
Some people worry about our federal deficit, but I, I worry about our bravery deficit.Oureconomy, our society, we're just losing out because we're not raising our girls to be brave. Thebravery deficit is why women are underrepresented in STEM, in C-suites, in boardrooms, inCongress, and pretty much everywhere you look.
In the 1980s, psychologist Carol Dweck looked at how bright fifth graders handled an assignmentthat was too difficult for them. She found that bright girls were quick to give up. The higher theIQ, the more likely they were to give up. Bright boys, on the other hand, found the difficultmaterial to be a challenge. They found it energizing. They were more likely to redouble theirefforts.
What's going on? Well, at the fifth grade level, girls routinely outperform boys in every subject,including math and science, so it's not a question of ability. The difference is in how boys andgirls approach a challenge. And it doesn't just end in fifth grade. An HP report found that men willapply for a job if they meet only 60 percent of the qualifications, but women, women will applyonly if they meet 100 percent of the qualifications.
100 percent. This study is usually invoked asevidence that, well, women need a little more confidence. But I think it's evidence that womenhave been socialized to aspire to perfection, and they're overly cautious.
And even when we're ambitious, even when we're leaning in, that socialization of perfection hascaused us to take less risks in our careers. And so those 600,000 jobs that are open right now incomputing and tech, women are being left behind, and it means our economy is being leftbehind on all the innovation and problems women would solve if they were socialized to be braveinstead of socialized to be perfect.
So in 2012, I started a company to teach girls to code, and what I found is that by teachingthem to code I had socialized them to be brave. Coding, it's an endless process of trial anderror, of trying to get the right command in the right place, with sometimes just a semicolonmaking the difference between success and failure. Code breaks and then it falls apart, and itoften takes many, many tries until that magical moment when what you're trying to build comesto life. It requires perseverance. It requires imperfection.
We immediately see in our program our girls' fear of not getting it right, of not being perfect.Every Girls Who Code teacher tells me the same story. During the first week, when the girls arelearning how to code, a student will call her over and she'll say, "I don't know what code towrite." The teacher will look at her screen, and she'll see a blank text editor. If she didn't knowany better, she'd think that her student spent the past 20 minutes just staring at the screen.But if she presses undo a few times, she'll see that her student wrote code and then deleted it.She tried, she came close, but she didn't get it exactly right. Instead of showing the progressthat she made, she'd rather show nothing at all. Perfection or bust.
It turns out that our girls are really good at coding, but it's not enough just to teach them tocode.
My friend Lev Brie, who is a professor at the University of Columbia and teaches introto Javatells me about his office hours with computer science students. When the guys are strugglingwith an assignment, they'll come in and they'll say,
"Professor, there's something wrong with mycode." The girls will come in and say,
"Professor, there's something wrong with me."
We have to begin to undo the socialization of perfection, but we've got to combine it with buildinga sisterhood that lets girls know that they are not alone. Because trying harder is not going to fixa broken system. I can't tell you how many women tell me,
"I'm afraid to raise my hand, I'm afraid to ask a question, because I don't want to be the onlyone who doesn't understand, the only one who is struggling. When we teach girls to be braveand we have a supportive network cheering them on, they will build incredible things, and I seethis every day. Take, for instance, two of our high school students who built a game calledTampon Run -- yes, Tampon Run -- to fight against the menstruation taboo and sexism ingaming. Or the Syrian refugee who dared show her love for her new country by building an appto help Americans get to the polls. Or a 16-year-old girl who built an algorithm to help detectwhether a cancer is benign or malignant in the off chance that she can save her daddy's lifebecause he has cancer. These are just three examples of thousands, thousands of girls whohave been socialized to be imperfect, who have learned to keep trying, who have learned perseverance. And whether they become coders or the next Hillary Clinton or Beyoncé, they willnot defer their dreams.
And those dreams have never been more important for our country. For the America neconomy, for any economy to grow, to truly innovate, we cannot leave behind half ourpopulation. We have to socialize our girls to be comfortable with imperfection, and we've got todo it now.
We cannot wait for them to learn how to be brave like I did when I was 33 years old.We have to teach them to be brave in schools and early in their careers, when it has the mostpotential to impact their lives and the lives of others, and we have to show them that they will beloved and accepted not for being perfect but for being courageous. And so I need each of youto tell every young woman you know -- your sister, your niece, your employee, your colleague --to be comfortable with imperfection, because when we teach girls to be imperfect, and we helpthem leverage it, we will build a movement of young women who are brave and who will build abetter world for themselves and for each and every one of us.
Thank you.
Chris Anderson: Reshma, thank you. It's such a powerful vision you have. You have a vision.Tell me how it's going. How many girls are involved now in your program?
Reshma Saujani: Yeah. So in 2012, we taught 20 girls. This year we'll teach 40,000 in all 50states.
And that number is really powerful, because last year we only graduated 7,500 women incomputer science. Like, the problem is so bad that we can make that type of change quickly.
CA: And you're working with some of the companies in this room even, who are welcominggraduates from your program?
RS: Yeah, we have about 80 partners, from Twitter to Facebook to Adobe to IBM to Microsoftto Pixar to Disney, I mean, every single company out there. And if you're not signed up, I'mgoing to find you, because we need every single tech company to embed a Girls Who Codeclassroom in their office.
CA: And you have some stories back from some of those companies that when you mix in moregender balance in the engineering teams, good things happen.
RS: Great things happen. I mean, I think that it's crazy to me to think about the fact that rightnow 85 percent of all consumer purchases are made by women. Women use social media at arate of 600 percent more than men. We own the Internet, and we should be building thecompanies of tomorrow. And I think when companies have diverse teams, and they haveincredible women that are part of their engineering teams,they build awesome things, and wesee it every day.
CA: Reshma, you saw the reaction there. You're doing incredibly important work. This wholecommunity is cheering you on. More power to you. Thank you.
RS: Thank you.
我不是一个人:太多女士曾告诉我,她们多么被职业和专业吸引,她们知道她们会做得很好,她们知道她们会非常完美,不足为奇。 绝大多数的女孩被教育,来规避风险和失败。我们被教育要有漂亮的微笑,不要冒险,课程拿全A。男孩们,另一方面来说,被教育成要更加勇猛,冲击更高的目标,爬上单杠最高的那层然后往下跳。当他们成长为大人,无论他们是在谈判加薪,或是约某人出去玩,他们习惯于接受一个一个挑战。他们也为此得到回报奖赏。在硅谷有这样的说法,没人把你当回事,除非你创业失败两次以上。另一句话说,我们教育培养女孩子们追求完美,我们教育培养男孩子们要勇敢。
在1980年代,心理学家Carol Dweck观察研究了五年级学生,如何处理一项对他们来说太困难的作业。她发现,聪明的女孩们很快就放弃了。智商越高的女孩,放弃的可能性越大。男孩们,将困难的材料视为一个挑战。他们为此精力充沛。他们更倾向于双倍努力。
在2012年,我创办了一家公司,教女孩如何编程,我发现,通过教她们如何编程,我令她们更加勇敢。编程,是一个无止尽的过程,实验和错误,试着将对的指令放在合适的地方,有时只是一个分号,就能决定成功还是失败。编码出错了随后七零八落,时常需要很多很多次试验。直到那个神奇的时刻,你想要搭建的程序完成了。 它需要持之以恒的努力。需要接受不完美。
我的朋友Lev Brie,是哥伦比亚大学的教授,他教授Java编程。他告诉我他对电脑科学学生开放的咨询时间里发生的故事。当男生们艰难应对一个作业的时候,他们会过来然后说,“教授,我编的程序出了点问题。”女生们会过来然后说,“教授,我出了点问题。”
这些梦想对我们国家来说是多么重要。对美国的经济,对任何成长中的经济,对真正的创新开发,我们不能丢下半数的人口。我们需要社会化地教女孩们,适应习惯不完美,我们现在开始就要这样做。我们不能等到她们 自己去学习如何勇敢,就像我33岁时那样。我们要教她们勇敢,在学校,在职业起步的时期,在能够影响她们的人生,以及其他人的人生重要的时期,要让她们知道,她们会被爱被接受,不是因为完美,而是因为充满勇气。我需要你们每个人,告诉你认识的每个年轻女士——你的姐妹,你的侄女,你的雇员,你的同事——习惯接受不完美,因为当我们告诉女孩,不必完美的时候,我们帮助她们平衡这样的关系,我们会有更多勇敢的年轻女士,这些女士为她们自己,和我们每个人建立更好的世界。
克里斯·安德森(以下简称CA):Reshma,谢谢你。这是非常强大的憧憬。你很有眼光。现在进行的怎么样了。现在有多少女孩 加入了你的项目活动?
Reshma Saujani(以下简称RS):是的。在2012年,有20个女孩参与。今年,我们有4万名女孩,来自美国50个州。
RS:是的,我们有大概80个合作公司 从推特到脸书,还有Adobe,IBM,微软,皮克斯,还有迪斯尼,我是说,每一家公司。如果你还没和我们签合作,我会去找你,因为我们需要每个科技公司都有能够编程的女孩,在他们的办公室工作。

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